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The following list contains references that are relevant to the project.
Alavalapati, J.R.R. 2005. Overview of policies influencing the wildland-urban interface. Pp. 63-76, in S.W. Vince, M.L. Duryea, E.A. Macie, and L.A. Hermansen (eds.), Forestlands at the Wildland-Urban Interface: Conservation and Management. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
American Farmland Trust. 2004. Strategic ranchland in the Rocky Mountain West: mapping the threats to prime ranchland in seven western states. Washington, DC. http://www.farmland.org/programs/states/documents/StrategicRanchlandin20thRockyMountainWest.pdf (Assessed April 25, 2007)
An, L., M. Linderman, J. Qi, A. Shortridge, and J. Liu. 2006. Exploring complexity in a human–environment system: an agent-based spatial model for multidisciplinary and multiscale integration. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 95:54–79.
Arno, S.F., and S. Allison-Bunnel. 2002. Flames in Our Forest: Disaster or Renewal? Island Press, Washington, DC.
Berger, T. 2001. Agent-based spatial models applied to agriculture: a simulation tool for technology diffusion, resource use changes and policy analysis. Agricultural Economics 25:245–260.
Berger, P.A. 2006. Generating agricultural landscapes for alternative futures analysis: a multiple attribute decision-making model. Transactions in GIS 10:103-120.
Berman, J.M. 2004. Industry output and employment projections to 2012. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review Online 127:58-79. www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2004/02/art4full.pdf (Assessed August 22, 2007)
Beyers, W.B., and P.B. Nelson. 2000. Contemporary development forces in the nonmetropolitan West: new insights from rapidly growing communities. Journal of Rural Studies 16:459-474.
Billings Gazette. 2008. Researchers: Expect more wildfires. September 25.
Black, A.E., and T. Opperman. 2005. Fire effects planning framework: a user’s guide. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-163WWW. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ft. Collins, CO.
Brown, T.J., B.L. Hall, and A.L. Westerling. 2004. The impact of twenty-first century climate change on wildland fire danger in the western United States: an applications perspective. Climatic Change 62:365-388.
Calkin, D.E., K.M. Gebert, J.G. Jones, and R.P. Neilson. 2005. Forest Service large fire area burned and suppression expenditure trends, 1970-2002. Journal of Forestry 103:179-183.
Cary, G., D. Lindenmayer, and S. Dovers. 2003. Australia is Burning: Fire Ecology, Policy and Management Issues. CSIRO Publishing, Herdon, VA.
Center for Applied Research and Environmental Systems (CARES). 2007a. Assessing Ecological Economic Impacts of Landscape Change in Montana’s Flathead County. http://cares.missouri.edu/montana/ (Assessed March 6, 2007)
______. 2007b. Adaptively Managing Agricultural Production for Future Climate and Land Use Changes in Montana’s Flathead River Basin. http://cares.missouri.edu/agclim-montana/ (Assessed March 6, 2007)
______. 2007c. 1982 and 2002 land covers for Flathead County. http://cares.missouri.edu/montana/land_cover.html (Assessed June 15, 2007)
Chen, C-T. 2000. Extensions to the TOPSIS for group decision-making under fuzzy environment. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 114:1-9.
Chen, S.J., and C.L. Hwang. 1992. Fuzzy multiple attribute decision making. Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems, No. 375, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
CIRMOUNT Committee. 2006. Mapping New Terrain: Climate Change and America’s West. Report of the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT). Misc. Pub., PSW-MISC-77, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Albany, CA.
Clark, W.C., D.D. Jones, and C.S. Holling. 1979. Lessons for ecological policy design: A case project of ecosystem management. Ecological Modeling 7:1-53.
Cohen, J.D. 1991. A site-specific approach for assessing the fire risk to structures at the wildland/urban interface. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-GTR-69, USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Knoxville, TN.
______. 1994. Structure ignition assessment model (SIAM). Paper presented at the Biswell Symposium: Fire Issues and Solutions in Urban Interface and Wildland Ecosystems, Walnut Creek, CA, February 15-17.
______. 1995. Structure ignition assessment model (SIAM). Pp. 85-92, in Proceedings of the Biswell symposium: fire issues and solutions in urban interface and wildland ecosystems. GTR-PSW-158. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.
______. 2000. Preventing disaster: home ignitability in the wildland-urban interface. Journal of Forestry 98:15-21.
Cohen, J.D., and J. Saveland. 1996. Structure ignition assessment can help reduce fire damages in the W-UI. Presentation at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/Economic Commission for Europe/International Labor Organization Seminar on Forest, Fire, and Global Change, Shushenskoye (Russian Federation).
Cohrssen, J.J., and V.T. Covello. 1989. Risk Analysis: A Guide to Principles and Methods for Analyzing Health and Environmental Risks. US Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.
Cortner, H.J., P.D. Gardner, and J.G. Taylor. 1990. Fire hazards at the wildland urban interface: what the public expects. Environmental Management 14:57-62.
Covington, W.W., and M. Moore. 1994. Southwestern ponderosa forest structure. Journal of Forestry 92:39-47.
Daily Inter Lake. 2003. A farewell to farms? July 13.
Deeming, J.E., R.E. Burgan, and J.D. Cohen. 1977. The National Fire Danger Rating System, 1978. Gen. Tech. Rpt. INT-39, USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/sew/fire/olm/nfdrs.htm (Assessed March 30, 2007)
Dellasala, D.A., J.E. Williams, C.D. Williams, and J.A. Franklin. 2004. Beyond smoke and mirrors: a synthesis of fire policy and science. Conservation Biology 18:976-986.
Dennis, F.C. 2007. Creating Wildfire-Defensible Zones. Colorado State University Extension-Natural Resources. Ft. Collins, CO. http://www.ext.colostate.edu/PUBS/natres/06302.html (Assessed September 7, 2007).
Djokic, D. 1993. Towards general purpose spatial decision support systems using existing technologies. Proceedings of the Second International Conference/Workshop on Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Environmental Modeling. Breckenridge, CO, September 26-30.
Dombeck, M.P., J.E. Williams, and C.A. Wood. 2004. Wildfire policy and public lands: integrating scientific understanding with social concerns across landscapes. Conservation Biology 18:883-889.
Dorazio R.M., and F.A. Johnson. 2003. Bayesian inference and decision theory-a framework for decision making in natural resource management. Ecological Applications 13:556-563.
Duryea, M.L., and S.W. Vince. 2005. Introduction: the city is moving to our doorstep. Pp. 3-13, in S.W. Vince, M.L. Duryea, E.A. Macie, and L.A. Hermansen (eds.), Forestlands at the Wildland-Urban Interface: Conservation and Management. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Ellison, M. 1996. An introduction to Bayesian inference for ecological research and environmental decision-making. Ecological Applications 6:1036-1046.
Emergency Management Australia in conjunction with the Australasian Fire Authorities Council and Country Fire Authority–Victoria. Undated. Wildfire Prevention in Australia. www.unisdr.org/eng/public_aware/world_camp/2000/PDF/Articulo_6_Australia_eng.pdf (Assessed July 17, 2008).
ESRI. 2005. ArcGIS Server. http://www.esri.com/library/brochures/pdfs/arcgis-server.pdf (Assessed April 19, 2007).
Fagre, D.B. 2000. Changing mountain landscapes in a changing climate: looking into the future. Changing Landscapes 2:31–39.
Fagre, D.B., S.W. Running, R.E. Keane and D.L. Peterson. 2005. Assessing climate change effects on mountain ecosystems using integrated models: a case project. Pp. 489-500, in U.M. Huber, H.K. Bagman, and M.A. Reasoned (eds.), Global Change and Mountain Regions: A State of Knowledge Overview. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Farris, C.A., C. Pezeshki, and L.F. Neuenschwander. 1999. A comparison of fire probability maps derived from GIS modeling and direct simulation techniques. Pp. 131-138 in Proceedings from the Joint Fire Science Conference and Workshop Crossing the Millennium: Integrating Spatial Technologies and Ecological Principles for a New Age in Fire Management, Vol. I. Boise, ID, June 15-17.
Ferry, G.W., R.G. Clark, R.E. Montgomery, R.W. Mitch, W.P. Lernout’s, and G.T. Zimmerman. 1995. Altered fire regimes within fire-adapted ecosystems. Our Living Resources: A Report to the Nation on the Distribution, Abundance, and Health of US Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems. US Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey, Washington, DC.
Finney, M.A. 1998. FARSITE: Fire Area Simulator-model development and evaluation. Res. Pap. RMRS-RP-4, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, UT. http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/4617 (Assessed May 10, 2007)
______. 2005. The challenge of quantitative risk analysis for wildland fire. Forest Ecology and Management 211: 97-108.
______. 2006. An overview of FlamMap fire modeling capabilities. Pp. 213-220, in P.L. Andrews and B.W. Butler, Fuels Management—How to Measure Success: Conference Proceedings. RMRS-P-41, USDA Forest Service Proceedings, Portland, OR, March 28-30.
Firewise Communities. 2007. Resources for the homeowner. http://www.firewise.org/resources/homeowner.htm (Assessed April 27, 2007).
Federal Geographic Data Classification (FGDC). 1997. http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/standards_publications/ (Assessed December 7, 2007)
Flathead County Planning and Zoning Office. 2007. Flathead County Growth Policy (adopted March 19, 2007 Resolution #2015A). http://www.co.flathead.mt.us/fcpz/growthpolicy.html (Assessed June 15, 2007)
Gardner, R.H., W.W. Hargrove, M.G. Turner, and W.H. Romme. 1996. Climate change, disturbances, and landscape dynamics. Pp. 149–172, in B. Walker and W. Steffen (eds.), Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Gebetsroither, E., A. Kaufmann, U. Gigler, and A. Resetarits. 2006. Agent-based modelling of self-organization processes to support adaptive forest management. Pp. 153-172, in F.C. Billari, T. Fent, A. Prskawetz, and J. Scheffran (eds.), Agent-Based Computational Modelling. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, Germany.
General Accounting Office. 1999. Western national fires: a cohesive strategy is needed to address catastrophic wildfire threats. US General Accounting Office, House of Representatives, Committee on Resources, Report to the Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health, RCED-99-65, Washington, DC.
GCS Research. 2005. Flathead County Community Wildfire Fuels Reduction/Mitigation Plan. Missoula, MT.
Gimblett, H.R. (ed.). 2002. Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Agent-Based Modeling Techniques for Simulating Social and Ecological Processes. Oxford University Press, NY.
Gunderson, L.H., C.S. Holling, and S.S. Light (eds.). 1995. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. Columbia University Press, NY.
Harder, C. 1998. Maps on the Internet. ESRI Publishing Inc., Redlands, CA.
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Herath, G., and T. Prato (eds.). 2006. Using Multi-criteria Decision Analysis in Natural Resource Management: Empirical Applications. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., UK.
______. 2007. Multiple-criteria decision analysis for integrated catchment analysis. Ecological Economics 63:627-632
Hoekenga, C. 2007. Two weeks in the West. High Country News 39:3.
Hoffmann, M.J., H. Kelley, D.C. Parker, and J. Walker. 2002. Agent-Based Modeling: A Framework for Decision Making. CIPEC Working Paper CWP-02-01. Center for the Project of Institutions, Population, and Environmental Change. Indiana University, Bloomington.
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Holsinger, L., R.E. Keane, B. Steele, M. Reeves, and S. Pratt. 2006. Using historical simulations of vegetation to assess departure of current vegetation conditions across large landscapes. Pages 315-366, in M.G. Rollins, and C. Frame (editors), Assessing Departure of Current Vegetation Conditions from Historical Simulations of Vegetation Across Large Landscapes. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-175. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.
Hungerford, R.D., R.R. Nemani, S.W. Running, and J.C. Coughlan. 1989 MTCLIM: A Mountain Microclimate Simulation Model. Research Paper INT 414. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden UT.
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Institute for Business and Home Safety. 2001. A Homeowner’s Guide to Wildfire Retrofit. Tampa, FL. http://aarp.thehartford.com/home/resources/Wildfire.pdf (Assessed April 5, 2007).
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007a. Fourth Assessment Report, Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-syr.htm (Assessed December 10, 2007).
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007b. Summary for Policymakers in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.
Kauffman, J.B. 2004. Death rides the forest: perceptions of fire, land use, and associated ecological restoration of western forests. Conservation Biology 18:878-882.
Keane, R.E., P. Morgan, and S.W. Running. 1996a. A mechanistic ecological process model for simulating fire succession on coniferous forest landscapes. INT Research Paper INT-RP-484. Intermountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Ogden, UT.
Keane, R.E., K. Ryan, and S.W. Running. 1996b. Simulating the effect of fires on northern Rocky Mountain landscapes using the ecological process model FIRE-BGCv2. Tree Physiology 16:319-331.
Keane, R.E., C. Hardy, K. Ryan, and M. Finney. 1997. Simulating effects of fire management on gaseous emissions from future landscapes of Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. World Resource Review 9:177-205
Keane, R.E., P. Morgan, and J.D. White. 1999. Temporal pattern of ecosystem processes on simulated landscapes of Glacier National Park, USA. Landscape Ecology 14:311-329.
Keane, R.E., T. Veblen, K.C. Ryan, J. Logan, C. Allen, and B. Hawkes. 2002. The cascading effects of fire exclusion in the Rocky Mountains. Pages 133-153, in J.S. Baron (editor), editor. Rocky Mountain Futures: An Ecological Perspective. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Keane, R.E., and C. Key. 2007. CCE fire regimes and their management. Pp. 201-212, in T. Prato and D. Fagre (eds.), Sustaining Rocky Mountain Landscapes: Science, Policy and Management for the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem. RFF Press, Washington, DC.
Keane, R.E., L.M. Holsinger, R.A. Parsons, and K. Gray. 2007. Climate change effects on historical range and variability of two large landscapes in western Montana, USA. Forest Ecology and Management (in press).
Keeley, J.E., C.J. Fotheringham, and M. Morais. 1999. Reexamining fire suppression impacts on brushland fire regimes. Science 284:1829-1832.
Keeton, W.S., P.W. Mote, and J.F. Franklin. 2007. Climate variability, climate change, and western wildfire with implications for the urban-wildland interface. Pp. 225–253, in Living on the Edge: Economic, Institutional and Management Perspectives on Wildfire Hazard in the Urban Interface. Advances in the Economics of Environmental Resources, Volume 6, Elsevier Ltd., Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Kiker, C.F., J.W. Melon, and A.W. Hodges. 2001. Adaptive learning for
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Kimball, J.S., S.W. Running, and R. Nemani. 1997. An improved method for estimating surface humidity from daily minimum temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 85:87−98
Kline, J.D. 2004. Issues in evaluating the costs and benefits of fuel treatments to reduce wildfire in the Nation’s forests. Research Note PNW-RN-542. USDA Forest Service, Corvallis, OR.
Künzli, N., E. Avon, J. Wu, W.J. Alderman, E. Rappaport, J. Millstein, J. Bunion, R. McConnell, F.D. Gilliland, K. Breanne, F. Clurman, A. Winner, and J.M. Peters. 2006. Health effects of the 2003 southern California wildfires on children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 174:1221-1228. http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/174/11/1221 (Assessed March 27, 2007)
Lenihan, J., C. Daly, D. Bachelet, and R.P. Neilson. 1998. Simulating broad-scale fire severity in a dynamic global vegetation model. Northwest Science 72:91-103.
Lim, K., P.J. Deadpan, E. Moran, E. Bromidic, and S. McCracken. 2002. Agent-based simulations of household decision-making and land use change near Altamira, Brazil. Pp. 277–308, in H. R. Gimblett (ed.), Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Agent-based Techniques for Simulating Social and Ecological Processes. Oxford University Press, NY.
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Loomis, J. 2002. Integrated Public Lands Management: Principles and Applications to National Forests, Parks, Wildlife Refuges, and BLM Lands (2nd edition). Columbia University Press, New York, NY.
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McDaniel, J. undated. Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS): Taking Decision Support into the 21st Century. http://www.wildfirelessons.net/Additional.aspx?Page=96 (Assessed September 1, 2007)
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Minnesota IMPLAN Group, Inc., 2007. IMPLAN System (data and software), Stillwater, MN 55082 www.implan.com (Assessed November 8, 2007)
Montana Cadastral Mapping. 2007. http://gis.mt.gov/ (Assessed June 15, 2007)
Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (MDNRC). 2007. State Wildfire Suppression and the Wildland-Urban Interface. Missoula, MT. http://dnrc.mt.gov/forestry/Publications/Documents/2006firecostreport.pdf (Assessed April 19, 2007)
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Pederson, G.T., S.T. Gray, J.J. Shanker, D.B. Fagre, and L.J. Graumlich. 2007a. A novel approach for improving records of long-term, multi-scale snowpack variability in western North America [abstract]. 2007 Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, San Francisco, CA, April 17-21.
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______. 2003a. Adaptive management of large rivers with special reference to the Missouri River. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 39:935-946.
______. 2003b. Multiple attribute evaluation of ecosystem management for the Missouri River. Ecological Economics. 45:297-309.
_____. 2005a. Accounting for uncertainty in making species protection decisions. Conservation Biology 19: 806-814.
______. 2005b. Bayesian adaptive management of ecosystems. Ecological Modelling 183:147-156.
______. 2005c. Modeling ecological impacts of landscape change. Environmental Modelling & Software 20:1359-1363.
______. 2006. Adaptive management of national park ecosystems. George Wright Forum 23: 72-86.
______. 2007. Evaluating land use policies under uncertainty. Land Use Policy 24: 165-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2006.02.003 (Assessed June 8, 2007)
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______. 2006. Coping with climate change. ActionBioscience http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/prato_fagre.html (Assessed April 24, 2007).
______ (eds.). 2007. Sustaining Rocky Mountain Landscapes: Science, Policy and Management for the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem. RFF Press, Washington, DC.
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